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UFO How-To Volume IV: Magnetohydrodynamics
(click images to follow links)
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) meets the
standards and details that witnesses
of UFO sightings describe. A plasma
shell around an MHD craft will
make that craft appear as a glowing
ball of light. That same plasma
absorbs radio waves and thus makes
the craft invisible to radar.
Does that sound like any UFO sighting
you’ve ever heard of before?
aids the ability to comprehend
plasma and fusion based technology,
enhanced electrogravitic craft in flight,
and will enable the creative thinker
to be able to visualize how simple
modifications in manufacture could
give a plasma thruster other uses...
UFO How-To Vol. IV -
Excerpts from 10 of the 38 entries taken at random from Volume IV of the UFO How-To series, and in no particular order:
1) The present invention relates in general to craft propelled by magnetohydrodynamic effects and methods of propulsion and control thereof, and more particularly to heavier-than-air craft which are propelled by interaction Of magnetic fields upon electrically conductive fluids such as plasma, surrounding the craft.
2) The present invention relates to a propulsion system for vessels traveling in an ionic media and more particularly relates to drive systems wherein the outer surface of the vessel constitutes an electrolytic cell employing the ambient ionic media as an operating electrolyte. Still more particularly the present invention relates to a vessel propulsion drive requiring no moving parts and wherein the thrust is accomplished electromagnetically to promote laminar fluid flow at the interphase between vessel and media.
3) A propulsion system has a means generating an electric current, an element generating a magnetic field substantially perpendicular to the electric current, an element forming a duct arranged so that by interaction of the magnetic field and the electric current a force in a liquid accommodated in the duct is produced and the liquid is moved, and a shaped element formed so that the moved liquid passes through the shaped element and applies a thrust force to the shaped element in a forward direction and then exits the shaped element to create a reaction force in an opposite direction to provide an additional thrust force applied to the shaped element.
4) Conventional Hall Effect ion source and plasma systems typically include a plasma accelerator, a gas distributor for introducing a gas into the plasma accelerator, and an anode located at one end of a channel. A DC voltage provided by a DC power source connected to an electric circuit creates an electric potential between the anode and a floating externally located cathode that emits electrons. A magnetic circuit structure with a magnetic field source, e.g., one or more permanent magnet or electromagnetic coil, creates a transverse magnetic field. The electric circuit and the magnetic circuit structure establish an axial electric field. The transverse magnetic field presents an impedance to flow of electrons attracted to the anode. As a result, the electrons spend most of their time drifting azimuthally (orthogonally) due to the transverse magnetic field. The result is the electrons collide with and ionize the neutral atoms in the propellant or gas. The collisions create positively charged ions in the gas to create plasma. The ions are accelerated by the axial electric field to create an ion flux that may be used, inter alia, to create thrust. See e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,150,764, 6,075,321, and 6,834,492 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/301,857 filed Dec. 13, 2005, all by one or more common inventors hereof and the same assignee, and are incorporated in their entity by reference herein.
Conventional Hall Effect ion source and plasma accelerator systems rely on the DC voltage provided by the DC power source connected to the electric circuit in order to determine the strength of the axial electric field and therefore the acceleration and energy level of the ions in the plasma. The DC voltage level also affects the flow and energy level of electrons attracted to the anode and therefore the ionization of the gas to create plasma. The result is ionization and acceleration are closely coupled causing the system to have a smaller operating envelope and lower efficiency than may be possible if the processes could be separated. Coupling acceleration and ionization prevents separately "tuning" the ion energy level, the amount of ionization provided by the system, and the total flux of the ions. Therefore, conventional Hall Effect ion source and plasma accelerator systems are unable to efficiently generate ion flux with ions having low (e.g., <10 eV) or mid ion energy (e.g., <130 eV) levels while maintaining a constant high ion flux density.
 Conventional Hall Effect ion source systems are also limited by the maximum DC voltage that can be utilized because arcs are typically generated in the discharge region of the plasma accelerator at high DC voltages, typically greater than about 1,000 V This limits the maximum DC voltage that can be employed and therefore the maximum specific impulse that can be achieved.
5) This invention relates to a new and improved system for controlling the relative movement between a fluid medium and a flight vehicle, and more particularly to a system in which forces are generated between a moving electrically conductive air mass and a flight vehicle in accordance with magnetohydrodynamic principles.
Where a flight vehicle, such as a missile or rocket, passes through the atmosphere at relatively high speeds, heat transfer between the turbulent air within a boundary layer and the surface of the vehicle elevates the temperature of the surface. Under extreme conditions, as where a missile re-enters the atmosphere from space, the elevation of the temperature of the surface may produce a deterioration in the material of the surface with a consequent destruction of the vehicle. Accordingly, a great deal of effort in connection with high-speed flight vehicles has been expended upon the development of materials capable of withstanding high temperatures. While materials have been developed which are inherently capable of withstanding extremely high temperatures, there still exists a limitation upon the maximum speed of a flight vehicle through the atmosphere due to the heating of the flight vehicle surfaces.
6) The present invention relates generally to a magnetohydrodynamic propulsion system for a vehicle; and, more particularly, to a propulsion system for aircraft and/or aerospace vehicles suitable for use in either point-to-point intra- and/or intercontinental travel - i.e., between spaced points of embarkation and destination points located on the same continent and/or different continents on earth—or in connection with interplanetary or deep space travel.
7) An efficiency enhancing anode-magnetic structure of a Hall effect thruster produces a radially directed magnetic field between inner and outer poles at the exit portion of a gas distribution channel. The field-shaping structure includes magnetic material extending alongside the channel with an associated secondary flux-generating component to create an axially directed magnetic field in the area between the anode of the thruster and the exit portion of the gas distribution channel.
8) A plasma thruster having a magnetic circuit of a downstream bottom plate from which arms protrude. At least one of the arms includes a permanent magnet. The mass, overall dimensions, electricity consumption, and cost of the thruster are thereby reduced.
9) A pulsed induction plasma accelerator is described wherein separate means are used to form the plasma and to impart an accelerating force to it. The structural means defining a gas ionization chamber having an axis of symmetry has a plurality of circular bands through which a time varying primary current is passed. The primary cur-rent induces an electric field which causes the ionization of a neutral gas contained within the ionization chamber, changing that gas to a current conducting plasma. Due to the interaction of the plasma current with the primary magnetic field, with its self magnetic field, and with its self-induced electric field, the plasma contracts about the axis of symmetry and is finally accelerated out of the chamber under the influence of a separately energized acceleration coil. The acceleration coil is positioned such that when energized, it generates a planar radial magnetic field in the vicinity of the contracted plasma and ex-tending radially outward from the axis of symmetry of the ionization chamber.
10) The present invention relates to a plasma accelerator, and more particularly to a two-stage Hall-effect plasma accelerator, and various apparatuses using the same, such as a space propulsion engine.
The science of Magnetohydrodynamics will enable you to build a flying craft that can not be detected by radar. After you read this Volume you will know that concerns about security are almost completely solved, all you will have to do is make the order. This is the opportunity that will go down in history alongside the Great Western Expansion and the Landing on the Moon. We are about to open the next great economic expansion, the New Space Race. Are you ready to be a part of it? Get this book now and seize the reins of your future, today.
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99% of this content are complete patents - only 1% commentary
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